Final Lecture Exam, 8 May 1997

I. Fill-in. Some answers may require a short phrase. (2 pts. each, 60 pts. total)



The 2 main categories of benefits of colonial nesting.


One example of a bird group that migrates nocturnally.


Ultimate (evolutionarily significant) factor regulating migratory timing.


One difference between songs and calls in birds.


Type of brood parasitism where parasite lays eggs only in nests of related species.


2 reasons why woodland passerine migrants might not follow river corridors during migration through the northern Great Plains.


Reason why eggshell thickness decreases throughout embryonic development.


Behaviors that appear spontaneously and are genetically based.


One possible function of a large song repertoire.


Percentage of all birds that nest in colonies.


Term for birds that hatch naked, blind, and helpless.


Term for birds that hatch feathered and self-supporting.


One condition stimulating flocking.


One function of the chorion during embryonic development.


One example of a bird group that migrates nocturnally.


What characteristic does an optimal clutch size maximize?


2 birds (or bird groups) that are brood parasites.


The term for the period of time during which imprinting must occur.


2 general characteristics of birds that practice cooperative breeding.


One example of an irruptive migrant species in South Dakota.


Type of learning where birds learn not to respond to meaningless stimuli.


Do altricial or precocial birds invest more energy in egg production?


2 physiological adaptations for migration.


One example of evidence used to support the predation hypothesis for the evolution of clutch size.


A clumped distribution of nests within a habitat is indicative of ______.


One function of calls in birds.

II. Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. (2 pts. each, 20 pts. total).

1. Nocturnally migrating birds typically migrate below ____ meters in altitude.
a) 100 b) 200 c) 1000
d) 2000 e) 5000

2. The best type of call for maintaining contact with other members of a flock is a call that is ...
a) faint, broad frequency range, low-pitched b) short, broad-frequency range c) loud, high-pitched, narrow frequency range
d) faint, narrow frequency range, high-pitched e) long, narrow frequency range, low-pitched

3. Which of the following does not contribute to dominance status in birds?
a) age b) sex c) body size
d) hormones e) all contribute

4. The best hypothesis for explaining why clutch size increases with increasing latitude is the hypothesis.
a) Lack's b) tradeoff c) seasonality
d) predation e) competition

5. Which of the following log-log plots best describes the relationship of territory size (Y axis) to body size (X axis) in birds?
a) b)
d) e)

6. A stereotyped, species-specific behavior that is turned on by a specific stimulus is called a(n) ____.
a) releaser b) sign stimulus c) imprinted behavior
d) fixed action pattern e) learned behavior

7. Which of the following is not true of a typical cooperative breeding system in birds?
a) involves breeding pair plus helpers b) defend an all-purpose territory c) helpers are genetically related to the breeding pair
d) helpers are usually only females e) all are true

8. The type of migration where some of the population migrates while some is resident is _____ migration.
a) partial b) differential c) irruptive
d) Neotropical e) directional

9. The selective factor thought to be responsible for the evolution of migratory behavior is ____.
a) to escaped cold climates b) to increase availability of food c) to enhance reproductive success
d) to reduce mortality e) all of the above

10. Beginning incubation as soon as the first egg is laid results in _____.
a) hatching synchrony b) hatching asynchrony c) precocial chicks
d) altricial chicks e) predator swamping effects

III. Essay. (10 pts. each, 20 pts. total). Use the back of the page if necessary.
1. Define directional orientation and navigation as they pertain to bird migration. Describe the physical or environmental cues available to migrating birds allowing them to orient and navigate properly.

2. (a) Describe the costs and benefits of territoriality in birds.
(b) Because territoriality has costs and benefits, we can apply optimality theory to theoretically define an optimal territory size that maximizes benefits relative to costs. Plot (on the same graph) the relationship of: 1) costs and 2) benefits vs. territory size for birds and label the optimal territory size. On the same graph, illustrate what would happen to the plot (and to optimal territory size) if resources in an area became superabundant.