ZOOL 461 ORNITHOLOGY|
Lecture Exam 2 - Practice Exam
I. Fill-in. Some answers may require a short phrase. (2 pts. each, 60 pts. total)
1.___________________________ Bird hearts are ___% larger than the hearts of similar-sized mammals.
2.___________________________ Function of the crop in birds.
3.___________________________ Dominant region of the forebrain in birds.
4.___________________________ 2 possible mechanisms regulating
5.___________________________ photoperiod sensitivity.
6.___________________________ Hormones regulating growth of gonads.
7.___________________________ The optimal range of hearing in birds is ___ (narrower or wider) than that in mammals.
8.___________________________ The temperature above which birds must elevate metabolic rate to dissipate heat.
9.___________________________ If a bird encounters a type 2 food item (less profitable) when E2/H2 < E1/(S1 + H1), should the bird eat it or ignore it?
10.__________________________ Main nitrogenous waste product in birds.
11.__________________________ Region of cloaca receiving excrement from digestive tract.
12.__________________________ Avian testes may be ___ times larger in the breeding season than in the nonbreeding season.
13.__________________________ Equation describing the rate of heat loss (and heat production assuming body temp. remains constant) from the body.
14.__________________________ 1 reason why maximum metabolic rates during cold exposure are not as high as during flight.
15.__________________________ Function of urohydrosis.
16.___________________________ 2 reasons why birds may not behave as
17.___________________________ if foraging optimally.
18.___________________________ 2 adaptations of avian respiratory system
19.___________________________ allowing very efficient oxygen extraction.
20.__________________________ Functional analogue to mammalian molars in birds.
21.__________________________ Avian structure homologous to C-cells in mammalian thyroid.
22.__________________________ Large birds have a ___ (higher or lower) mass-specific metabolic rate than small birds.
23.__________________________ The optimal time allocation model predicts that a bird should change foraging patches when _________.
24.__________________________ According to the optimal time allocation model, birds should ____ time in the patch if travel time between patches increases.
25.__________________________ Central place foraging predicts that load size should ____ if travel time between the nest and the foraging area decreases.
26.___________________________ 2 active methods for promoting heat
27.___________________________ loss in birds.
28.__________________________ 1 proposed function for pecten.
29.__________________________ Region of oviduct adding shell membranes.
30.__________________________ 1 difference between the syrinx of oscine passerines and those of other birds.
II. Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer. (2 pts. each, 20 pts. total). 1. Which of the following is not true about avian salt glands?
5. Which of the following food types is most easily assimilated (i.e., has the highest digestive efficiency)?
2. Diagram what happens to metabolic rate and body temperature as environmental temperature decreases during regulated hypothermia and torpor in birds. How and why does this response allow the birds to save energy?