Endocrinology, lecture on Hormones from the Brain
USD Department of Biology
Endocrinology
Summers
Hormones
Endocrine Glands
Receptors
Homeostasis
2nd Messengers
Nuclear Receptors
Genetic Regulation
Hormone Synthesis
Receptor Regulation
Hypothalamo-Hypophysial Communication
Tropic Hormones
Neurohypophysial Nonapeptides
Thyroid Axis
Steroids
Adrenal Axis
Adrenal Medulla
Osmo-Pressure Balance
Reproductive Endocrinology
Prolactin
Somatic Axis
Growth Factors
Immune System
Ca++, PO4 Homeostasis
Pancreatic Hormones
GI Hormones
Guts 'n Brains
Brain Hormones
Neurosteroids
Neuropeptides
Evolution
Figures for Endocrionology
text:Vertebrate Endocrinology4th Edition - David O. Norris:
Read pages 3-12 for this lecture
acronyms    end
XXXI. Neuropeptides 		

		1. Many peptide hormones are also secreted within the brain
		   to modulate neural actions


		2. Classes of neuropeptides:


			a. opiates: Met-enkephalon, Leu-enkephalon, b-endorphin, dynorphin


			b. gut-brain: SP, VIP, CCK, NT, NPY, galanin, insulin, glucagon,
			      GRP/bombesin, gastrin, secretin, motilin


			c. hypothalamic: CRH, GHRH, GnRH, TRH, somatostatin


				i. neurohypophysial: AVP, Oxy


			d. pituitary: ACTH, GH, LH, a-MSH, PrL, TSH


			e. other: Ang2, ANP, CGRP, bradykinin
		

		3. Functional roles (examples):


			a. opiates: analgesic, anxiolytic, sedative
	

			b. gut-brain:  CCK is anxiogenic
						 SP ® pain transmission


			c. hypothalamic:
			       CRF ® coordinates neural control of stress responses
			      TRH ® stimulant (antagonizes sedative drugs  arousal and locomotion )


				i. neurohypophysial: AVP  learning, memory and aggression

					(1) OT  sexual receptivity and behavior
					    + parental behavior


			d. pituitary: ACTH ® anxiogenic, depression

XXX. Comparative Endocrinology - Evolution of Endocrine Function