Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on Lordosis Behavior
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Sexual Behavior
Sensory Reception - Tactile Receptors
Spinal Synapses
Afferent Spinal Pathways
Hypothalamic Gating
Efferent Motor Cascade
Neuromuscular Production of Lordosis Integrated Story of Lordosis
Substance P
Lordosis figures   Sensory Receptors
Spinal Cord   Lordosis Circuitry
end     Acronyms/Abbreviations
V. Substance P (SP) 			
!First Neural Circuit for a Mammalian Behaivor!

	A. One of the Tachykinin peptides    (rapid, move; fast acting)

		1. along with bombesin, substance K (neurokinin A),
		   neurokinin B (NKB; neuromedin K), neuropeptide K, neuropeptide g

			a. all derived from a single gene - ppT = preproTachykinin
				i. except NKB
		2. 11 amino acids
			a. Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2

	B. SP is regulated by tonic suppression of ppT in the ganglion

		1. synaptic stimulaton of ganlionic neurons
		   suppresses PPT gene expression

		2. in Striatum: nigrostriatal DA induces ppT gene expression  
		   and increases SP in striatonigral neurons

			a. stimulated by D2, D2 control regulated by D1
			b. reciprocal innervation of substantia nigra and striatum

		3. SP colocalized with GABA and dynorphin in striatum

		4. SP with ACh in pontine neurons
		5. SP with 5-HT and TRH in raph
			a. also in descending 5-HT pathways that terminate
				    in ventral horn of the spinal cord
		6. with other peptides in sensory neurons
			a. Lordosis
	C. Tachykinin Receptors and Inositol Phosphate 2nd messenger

		1. High Affinity receptor: NK1 (SP type R)
			a. low affinity for NK2 & NK3

		2. GpPLC DG/IP3Ca++CalmodulinCAM Kinase

	D. Endocrine function 
		1. stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion

	E. Enteric (GI) nervous system (part of the autonomic)

		1. Substance P innervates muscle, mucosa and interneurons
			a. powerful muscle contraction
		2. Distribution: small & large intestines, pancreas

	F. Spinal Cord
		1. Sensory transmitter in peripheral NS
			a. dorsal root cells (10-20% of 1o afferent fibers)
				i. colocalized with other peptides (VIP) and Glu
				i. also dorsal horn interneurons

			b. as with Lordosis
			c. SP is important in C-fiber nociceptive (pain) cells
				i. stimulated by capsaicin
				ii. SP released by dorsal root cells at the skin
				    stimulate blood flow, histamine and inflammation
						(1) blocked or reducd by capsaicin
		2. SP co-released with 5-HT in ventral horn
			a. stored together in large vesicles
				i. also sometimes with TRH
		3. also cross-regulation of release
			a. separate vesicles
			b. 5-HT enhances SP release via 5-HT2
			c. SP enhances 5-HT release
				i. SP also antagonizes 5-HT autoreceptor inhibition
					(1) positive feedback loop
					(2) augments neuronal action under conditions
					    of low neuronal activity

	G. Brain

		1. SP has a wide cell body distribution
			a. telencephalon: perikarya in striatum, nucleus accumbens
			   amygdala, habenula
			   	i. SP/GABA/Dyn cells in striatum project to substantia nigra
					(1) striatonigral pathway
			b. diencephalon: anterior hypothalamus, ventral hypothalamus
				i. SP implicated in VMH for lordosis
					a. VMH cells E2 and P receptors
					   also make SP
			c. mid/hindbrain: Edinger-Westphal nucleus, median raph,
			   midbrain central gray (MCG; PAG), LateroDorsal Tegmentum (LDT),
			   Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NST)
			   	i. SP implicated in MCG for lordosis
			d. cranial nerves: trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus

VI. Spinal Synapses