Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on electric fish
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Electric Fish and JAR Behavior
Afferent Path of Electroreception
Control of Electric Organ Discharge
Efferent Output producing EOD
Jamming Avoidance Response
Electric field Glutamate
Electric Fish Figures
Electric Fish Circuitry
Acronyms/Abbreviations    end
V. Control of EOD ouput Frequency 	

	A. nucleus Electrosensorius (nE) located in diencephalon
		1. nE contains a simple motor map'
			a. stimulation of specific regions 
			b. produce slow increases (nE) or decreases (nE)
			    in the frequency of output
		2. receives afferent signals from the TS
			a. three pathways
				i. dTS  dnE = nEb
				ii. inferior dTS  nE
				iii. vTS nE nEAR or nE
		3. beat region
			a. electrosensory feedback
				i. NP + EGp
			b. beat modulations
				i. when 2 EOD signals interfere
				ii. not necessary for JAR
			c. aids recognition of conspecific EODs
		2. inferior dorsal region of nE = nE
			a. causes increase in EOD frequency
				i. via higher order sign-selective cells
				ii. positive Frequency Discharge
			b. projects to PPnG
				i. Glu
		3. acusticolateralis region (nEAR) = nE
			a. processes mechanosensory + low frequency 
			   ampullary (P) electrosensory information
			b. generates decreased frequency in EOD
				i. opposing higher order sign-selective cells
				ii. negative Frequency Discharge
			c. projects to SPPn
				i. GABA output
	B. Prepacemaker Nuclei 
		1. Central Posterior/Prepacemaker nucleus (CP/PPn)
		   in diencephalon
			a. excitation from positive Frequency Discharge cells
			   in nE
				i. PPnG - gradual
				ii. PPnC - chirp
			b. Glutamate input
				i. AMPA/NMDA
			c. PPnG activity EOD
				i. project to pacemaker nucleus (Pn)
					(1) Pn pacemaker cells
				ii. Glu output
		2. Sublemniscal prepacemaker (SPPn) in midbrain 
			a. inhibition from negative Frequency Discharge cells in nE
			b. GABA input
				i. GABAA-R
			c. SPPn activity EOD
				i. project to Pn relay cells
				i. Glu output

V.v. GABA Acetylcholine

VI. Efferent output producing EOD