Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on Acetylcholine
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Honey Bee Ecology and Behavior
Honey Bee Neuroanatomy
Fundamentals of Neurocircuitry
Sensory Afferent input for Proboscis Extension
Apis mellifera Gating Proboscis Extension
Learning to Drink
Conditioned Proboscis Extenstion
Motor Neuron output for Proboscis Extension
Acetylcholine ACh
Octopamine OA
Integration: Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking
Honey Bee figures
Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking Neurocircuitry
end     Acronyms/Abbreviations
Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking
IX. Honey Bee Proboscis Extension Reflex- Gating Antennal Input 
	A. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORN - bilateral) send signals to the antennal lobes (AL)

		1. to the ipsilateral (same side) glomeruli of the AL
			a. ALs similar to olfactory bulbs in vertebrates

		2. Excitatory connections to projection neurons (PN)

			a. releases acetylcholine (ACh; cholinergic) 
				i. nicotinic receptors (nAChR)on target neurons
			b. 1 AL sensory-gated response
		3. Connections also to inhibitory local neurons (LNs)

			a. Signals are GABAergic

		4. processing necessary to produce the appropriate response
			a. aversive or rewarding
			b. but the basic reflex is simple 

	B. Direct processing of sensory information results in reflexive motor pathway

		1.  AL PNs project to motor centers in the subesophageal ganglion (SEG)

			a. 1st and fastest connection
			b. SEG is 1 sensory input relay
				i.  made up of 3 parts

					1) mandibular ganglion

						a) mandible sensory input/motor output 
					2) maxillary ganglion

						a) maxilla sensory input/motor output
						b) VUMmx1
					3) labial ganglion

						a) labial sensory input/motor output
 			c. and motor output gateway

		2. AL PNs also project to LH and MB for learning
	C. ORN  AL gating  SEG 
		1. Direct
		2. rapid
		3. but modifiable
			a. AL GABA local neurons
			b. input from VUMmx1, LH, MB

X. Learning to Drink