Behavioral Neuroscience, lecture on Honey Bee and its behavior
USD Department of Biology
Behavioral Neuroscience
Honey Bee Ecology and Behavior
Honey Bee Neuroanatomy
Fundamentals of Neurocircuitry
Sensory Afferent input for Proboscis Extension
Apis mellifera Gating Proboscis Extension
Learning to Drink
Conditioned Proboscis Extenstion
Motor Neuron output for Proboscis Extension
Acetylcholine ACh
Octopamine OA
Integration: Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking
Honey Bee figures
Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking Neurocircuitry
end     Acronyms/Abbreviations
Honey Bee Conditioned Drinking
IV. Honey Bee Neuroanatomy 

	A. Sensory Systems
		1. Antennae Lobes (AL)

			a. each  containing 165 spheroidal neuropil units called glomeruli 

			b. local neurons (interneurons) connecting different glomeruli

				i. primarily inhibitory

					1) mostly g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic
			c. projections neurons 

				i. relay information to higher-order brain regions 
					1) lateral horn                
 					2) mushroom bodies               

			d. First step of synaptic interaction
				i. for olfactory receptor neurons and other neuronal types 

			e. mediates olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, and auditory information

		2. Visual structures (out to in)
			a. Eyes
			b. Lamellae (L)
			c. Medulla (Me)               

			d. Lobula (Lo)
			e. Anterior Optic Tubercle (AOT) major unit (MU)        

				i. dorsal and ventral pathways

					1) to mushroom bodies

		3. Sensory signals from mouth, proboscis and body

			a. Suboesophageal Ganglion (SEG) 

				i. receives from and projects to the ventral nerve cord
				ii. Contains the Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUM) 

					1) 15 neurons
					2) VUM #1 of the maxillary neuromere (VUM-mx1)                    

						a) transmits gustatory information from sucrose receptors 
 							i) the reward neuron

						b) appetitive value system for olfactory learning
						c) Octopamine secreting neuron 
				iii. Interacts with olfactory pathways in anterior lobe, mushroom bodies, and lateral horn           

	B. Integration and Gating

		1. Lateral Horn (LH = lateral protocerebrum)

			a. receives projections from neurons in the antenna lobes
 				i. pheromone sensitive projection neurons

				ii. plant odor sensitive projection neurons
 				iii. processed separately in two lobes 

						1) rewarding vs aversive
		2. Mushroom Bodies (MB; top to bottom)

			a. medial calyx & lateral calyx  
			b. a and b lobes

				i. b surrounds a            

					1) "stalk of mushroom"

			c. mediate social behavior and memory

			d. receives projections from neurons in the antenna lobes
				i. Involved in olfactory learning and memory
					1) Integration of olfactory information with other sensory modalities

			e. receives visual projections from the AOT-MU    

V. Fundamentals of Neurocircuitry